Home > chronology, crucifixion, Easter > >How many days in the tomb?

>How many days in the tomb?

>The traditional understanding is that Jesus was crucified on the Friday and rose on the Sunday. Based on Jesus statement of 3 days and 3 nights some have argued that Jesus was dead for 72 hours, dying Wednesday at sundown and rising Saturday at sundown (which would be at the end of the Sabbath).

Clarity is needed on how days are recorded. Jews at the time of Jesus counted days from sundown to sundown, so at dusk on a Friday the next day would begin, being their Sabbath. The West follows a midnight to midnight reckoning of days with midnight being the mid point between 2 noons and noon being when the sun is at its zenith (though there are some modifications to this).

The points to resolve are:

  • Day of crucifixion
  • Sabbath day and any intervening days
  • Day of resurrection
  • Number of days in the tomb

I would like to tackle the days in reverse order. In general I will not be quoting Scriptures already mentioned in the previous few posts.

Day of resurrection

There is little room for movement here. Several passages clearly state the Jesus rose on the 1st day of the week. This occurred before dawn as the women arrived at the tomb before dawn and Jesus had already risen. Jesus could have risen any time from the end of the Sabbath at dusk the previous evening till near dawn. We are not told exactly when (I favour early in the morning) but there is no disagreement between the schools of thought on the specific day here.

Sabbath

The day before the 1st day of the week must be the 7th. This is the Sabbath day. At least some of the verses discussing the Sabbath are referring to the normal weekly Sabbath as they specify that it came prior to the 1st day.

  • Now after the Sabbath, toward the dawn of the 1st day of the week,… (Mat 28:1)
  • When the Sabbath was past,… very early on the 1st day of the week,… (Mar 16:1-2)
  • On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment. But on the 1st day of the week, at early dawn,… (Luk 23:56-24:1)

The only way further days can be included is if there are more “Sabbaths” prior to the 7th day. Chuck Missler argues for this in an article titled, The Day of Debt. He claims that the Jews had other “Sabbaths” including the 1st day of Unleavened Bread which was to start on Nisan 15. The references he gives for this argument are Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:5-7 and Numbers 28:17. These verses are discussing regulations for the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread but none of them actually say that the 1st day of Unleavened Bread is a “Sabbath.” Further, the feast was to last 7 days so any “Sabbath” would likely be at the end of the 7 days not the beginning.

What further complicates matters is that there is disagreement over whether the last supper occurred on the Passover or the day before the Passover. The synoptic gospels state that the day of the last supper was the 1st day of Unleavened Bread. I am uncertain what exactly this implies but it suggests that the crucifixion was on the 2nd day of Unleavened Bread, and further that the customs of the Jews in the 1st century may have not occurred exactly as prescribed in the Law of Moses. Whatever the solution to this is, it means that even one argues that the 1st day of Unleavened Bread was a “Sabbath,” this “Sabbath” was over before the crucifixion.

The other argument put forward for 2 “Sabbaths” that week is that Matthew 28:1 (see above) should be translated:

Now after the Sabbaths,…

That is, in the plural. I cannot adequately comment on this not being conversant in Greek. None of the English translations do this (though this does not disprove the argument). The word “Sabbath” in Matthew 28 is σαββατων and it appears in this form for both the word “Sabbath” and the word “week” later in the verse, to wit, “the 1st day of the week.” The parallel passages in Mark and Luke use the forms σαββατου and σαββατον. Those versed in Greek can enlighten me but I suspect there is nothing in this.

John mentions that this Sabbath was a high day. By this I think it is likely that he means it occurs during a festival.

Day of crucifixion

All 4 gospels confirm that Jesus was crucified on the day of Preparation; mentioned once in each of the Synoptics and 3 times in John. They all state that the day of Preparation was immediately prior to the Sabbath; Luke informing us that Sabbath was in fact beginning near the time Jesus was laid in the tomb. John adds that the request for breaking the legs was to ensure the death of the men so their bodies could be got down before the Sabbath commenced.

Thus the day of Preparation, if we are correct about there being only 1 Sabbath, must be the 6th day of the week—Friday.

What are we to make of John’s comment?

Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover. (Joh 19:14)

John mentions the day of Preparation 3 times and connects this with the Passover specifically in this verse. This had led to disagreement over the date Jesus was crucified, some claiming this day was lead up to the Passover and others the day previous with the Passover corresponding to the Last Supper (John 18:28 is also relevant here). Without resolving this issue, I will put forward my provisional thoughts.

Does the day of Preparation mean the 6th day every week? Is it when they prepared for the Sabbath? as they were not allowed to work on the Sabbath.

While there could be be preparation for the Passover, the words do not necessarily imply this. If “day of Preparation” was the name of the day, albeit a very descriptive one, then genitive case could just mean the day that occurred during that festival. Consider if we translated it:

Now it was the Passover’s Day-of-Preparation

In English we say Good Friday and Easter Sunday. The adjectives describing the days refer to the holiday. Friday and Sunday are not days that happen at Easter, they happen every week; the same may be true of the day of Preparation.

Number of days in the tomb

There are multiple mentions of the number 3 and the adjective 3rd as documented in previous posts. This could mean that there were 3 days from the crucifixion then on that 3rd day, or after the end of that 3rd day Jesus would rise. One cannot say which is intended for several of the passages and if we had them alone we would be less certain.

The additional information as detailed above would suggest that an inclusive rendering is what is meant.

But several of the passages specifying 3 days show that these were to be counted inclusively.

Several times Jesus says that he will rise on the 3rd day. After the resurrection Jesus reminds people that he was to rise on the 3rd day, the angel says the same to the women at the tomb. And Peter and Paul both say Jesus rose on the 3rd day. On the road to Emmaus the 2 disciples tell Jesus that this is the 3rd day since this happened. Jesus had already risen but they were still within the 3rd day.

Further evidence that “after 3 days” can be equated with on the “3rd day” in the minds of 1st century Judaism is seen in the Pharisees’ request to Pilate:

“Sir, we remember how that impostor said, while he was still alive, ‘After 3 days I will rise.’ Therefore o
rder the tomb to be made secure until the 3rd day, lest his disciples go and steal him away and tell the people, ‘He has risen from the dead,’ and the last fraud will be worse than the first.” (Mat 27:63-64)

Though they mention after 3 days, in their minds they only needed to place the guard until the 3rd day, not thru that day until the 4th day.

Thus the information we have considered so far consistently points to a Friday crucifixion and a pre-dawn Sunday resurrection; and that the 3 days were to be counted inclusively. Now onto the Jonah analogy.

Categories: chronology, crucifixion, Easter
  1. 2008 March 24 at 20:32

    The difficulty is right here, bethyada:
    These verses are discussing regulations for the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread but none of them actually say that the 1st day of Unleavened Bread is a “Sabbath.” Further, the feast was to last 7 days so any “Sabbath” would likely be at the end of the 7 days not the beginning.
    Look at Exodus 12 first:
    And in the first day [there shall be] an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them…
    Leviticus 23 is, if anything, even more clear; note the exact same terminology to describe the Sabbaths –
    holy convocation; ye shall do no work [therein]: it [is] the sabbath of [YHVH]…
    This IS the description of the TWO high sabbaths which begin and end the seven days of Unleavened Bread.
    A “church” which has “done away with” the Appointed Times which God said clearly and repeatedly we were to keep “forever” no doubt finds it much easier to forget, or even distort, His timetable.

  2. 2008 March 24 at 20:46

    On a slightly different note, the confusion about the day of the passover meal, or seder, seems to go back at least a couple of millenia, and may have even been a part of the plan by which God fooled the Adversary…
    (I.e., should Pesach have been ‘Wednesday’ or ‘Thursday’?)
    Yeshua evidently celebrated His seder with the disciples in accord with the Sadducaic reckoning the evening (Erev Pesach) before the Pharisees did. This allowed Him to perfectly portray the prophetic picture with His apostles the previous night, but to ALSO fulfill ALL of the accepted ritual in parallel with the Temple sacrifices one day later.
    From “I find no fault in Him” (said of the lambs) to “It is finished”, which the High Priest pronounced over the final sacrifice after it was slain, to the EXACT timing of His death, the level of detail and prophetic precision which God demonstrated is nothing short of miraculous!
    Even the Roman centurion who witnessed His death, and the simultaneous parallel in the Temple, got it!
    I find it difficult to imagine sometimes how people can accept the miracle of His Resurrection, and yet choose to ignore just how UTTERLY PROFOUND was literally EVERY ASPECT of His mission to perfectly fulfill the Spring Feasts.

  3. 2008 March 25 at 03:43

    Mark Call, I don’t see that the days of Unleavened Bread are called Sabbaths. You mentioned Leviticus 23.

    The LORD spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, These are the appointed feasts of the LORD that you shall proclaim as holy convocations; they are my appointed feasts.
    “Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You shall do no work. It is a Sabbath to the LORD in all your dwelling places. (Lev 23:1-3 ESV)

    The introduction is discussing all the holy days. Verse 3 is discussing the weekly Sabbath. From verse 4 we have the Passover. I don’t see any evidence that any days in Passover/ Unleavened Bread were called “Sabbath.”

  4. 2008 March 25 at 16:20

    I now see the specifics of your concern, bethyada. A couple of comments may help, although I don’t contend the argument is rigorous in the definitional sense.
    Again, as background, recall Lev. 23:2 as a template —
    Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, [Concerning] the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim [to be] holy convocations, [even] these [are] my feasts.
    The next verse describes the [weekly] Sabbath this way:
    the seventh day [is] the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work [emphasis added]
    Verses 6 and 7 describe the first sabbath of week of unleavened bread:
    And on the fifteenth day of the same month [is] the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.
    In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

    The same terms, holy convocation, and the “no work” qualifier, are used consistently for what are generally called the “High Sabbaths” in English.
    – There are arguably three, or even four or more, languages to consider here (Hebrew, Greek, English, and perhaps Aramaic, not counting other translations). Given that “do no traditional work” is a fairly lengthy phrase, it is not surprising that ‘sabbath’ might be substituted to convey that meaning.*
    – From personal experience, I know that when one thinks about scheduling days off from work, writing it on calendars, or discussing the upcoming holy day(s), it is VERY easy to fall into the “shorthand” of thinking of it as a sabbath. (Note that distinctions with the weekly Sabbath can still be made, and indeed were in some cases in the Bible, by use of capitalization, or descriptors like “High Sabbath”.)
    Even among family and church members, we must still sometimes stop and remember the differences between Erev Pesach, the time of the traditional seder, Passover day itself, the First High Sabbath of the Feast week, and the day of First Fruits (which is NOT a sabbath itself, but is a Sunday, sometimes “Easter”).
    – Other terms are also used to clarify the situation, once one understands the structure of the holy days. The “Day of Preparation” noted in the Gospels (by that name, or others) was the time for acquiring and preparing parts of the upcoming meal, and cleansing the house of leaven.
    – Finally, there hasn’t been much discussion of the lamb (and I’ve been part of the task as part of my church assembly, but not for my house alone). There is VERY much to be said for DOING what Adonai commands in this regard. A family which takes in a cute innocent young creature like that, inspects it, and then cares for it over that time of preparation soon begins to REALLY understand how difficult the sacrifice can be. It brings home the lesson that He is teaching like almost nothing else can.

  5. 2008 March 25 at 16:26

    — continued —
    I also recall a very moving lesson by our pastor following the first year in which we prepared a live lamb for Pesach, after he had burned the offal and bones as the Bible outlines. The next year many of us joined him.
    The simple bottom line, bethyada, is that there really ARE tremendous blessings for following his outline for our observance of His Appointed Times. Sometimes we simply don’t understand just how important those things are until we actually do them, in obedience to Him, ourselves. I have become convinced that every single aspect of His feasts has been specified “for our good”.
    After all, He DID say forever.
    ————————–
    * As you no doubt know, I often express the concern that “Law” is often a less appropriate translation of the word torah than is something like “teaching and understanding”. But it IS shorter!

  6. Starwind
    2008 March 27 at 17:57

    Bethayda, without delving into other interpretations yet…
    The references he gives for this argument are Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:5-7 and Numbers 28:17. These verses are discussing regulations for the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread but none of them actually say that the 1st day of Unleavened Bread is a “Sabbath.” Further, the feast was to last 7 days so any “Sabbath” would likely be at the end of the 7 days not the beginning.
    Scripture quite clearly designates Nisan 15th 1st and 7th Days of Unleavened Bread as High Sabbaths (Holy Assembly or Convocation), my cites below are NASB:
    Exo 12:15-19 ‘Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, but on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses; … 16 ‘On the first day you shall have a holy assembly, and another holy assembly on the seventh day; no work at all shall be done on them, … 17 ‘You shall also observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, … as a permanent ordinance. 18 ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening. 19 ‘Seven days there shall be no leaven found in your houses; …
    Lev 23:6-8 ‘Then on the fifteenth day of the same month there is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. 7 ‘On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work. 8 ‘But for seven days you shall present an offering by fire to the LORD. On the seventh day is a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work.'”
    Num 28:16-25 ‘Then on the fourteenth day of the first month shall be the LORD’S Passover. 17 ‘On the fifteenth day of this month shall be a feast, unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days. 18 ‘On the first day shall be a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work. 19 … 20 … 21 … 22 … 23 … 24 … 25 ‘On the seventh day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work.
    I agree with Mark Call on this point.

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